Does the December share price for Mensch und Maschine Software SE (ETR:MUM) reflect what it’s really worth? Today, we will estimate the stock’s intrinsic value by estimating the company’s future cash flows and discounting them to their present value. Our analysis will employ the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model. Don’t get put off by the jargon, the math behind it is actually quite straightforward.
We generally believe that a company’s value is the present value of all the cash it will generate in the future. However, a DCF is just one valuation metric among many, and it is not without flaws. If you still have some burning questions about this type of valuation, take a look at the Simply Wall St analysis model.
See our latest analysis for Mensch und Maschine Software
Is Mensch und Maschine Software Fairly Valued?
We are going to use a twostage DCF model, which, as the name states, takes into account two stages of growth. The first stage is generally a higher growth period which levels off heading towards the terminal value, captured in the second ‘steady growth’ period. To begin with, we have to get estimates of the next ten years of cash flows. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren’t available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with reduced free cash flow will slow their rate of depreciation, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.
A DCF is all about the idea that a dollar in the future is less valuable than a dollar today, so we need to discount the sum of these future cash flows to arrive at a present value estimate:
10year free cash flow (FCF) estimate
2023 
2024 
2025 
2026 
2027 
2028 
2029 
2030 
2031 
2032 

Leveraged FCF (€, Millions) 
€31.5m 
€36.6m 
€42.3m 
€48.7m 
€53.1m 
€56.5m 
€59.0m 
€60.9m 
€62.2m 
€63.2m 
Growth Rate Estimate Source 
Analyst x1 
Analyst x1 
Analyst x1 
Analyst x1 
Est @ 9.07% 
Est @ 6.36% 
Est @ 4.46% 
Est @ 3.13% 
Est @ 2.2% 
Est @ 1.55% 
Present Value (€, Millions) Discounted @ 5.2% 
€29.9 
€33.1 
€36.3 
€39.8 
€41.2 
€41.7 
€41.4 
€40.6 
€39.5 
€38.1 
(“Est” = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10year Cash Flow (PVCF) = €381m
After calculating the present value of future cash flows in the initial 10year period, we need to calculate the Terminal Value, which accounts for all future cash flows beyond the first stage. The Gordon Growth formula is used to calculate Terminal Value at a future annual growth rate equal to the 5year average of the 10year government bond yield of 0.03%. We discount the terminal cash flows to today’s value at a cost of equity of 5.2%.
Terminal Value (TV)= FCF_{2032} × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = €63m× (1 + 0.03%) ÷ (5.2%– 0.03%) = €1.2b
Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)^{10}= €1.2b÷ ( 1 + 5.2%)^{10}= €738m
The total value is the sum of cash flows for the next ten years plus the discounted terminal value, which results in the Total Equity Value, which in this case is €1.1b. To get the intrinsic value per share, we divide this by the total number of outstanding shares. Compared to the current share price of €51.5, the company appears a touch undervalued at a 22% discount to where the stock price trades currently. Remember though, that this is just an approximate valuation, and like any complex formula – garbage in, garbage out.
Important Assumptions
We would point out that the most important inputs to a discounted cash flow are the discount rate and of course the actual cash flows. If you don’t agree with these results, have a go at the calculations yourself and play with the assumptions. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company’s future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company’s potential performance. Given that we are looking at Mensch und Maschine Software as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we’ve used 5.2%, which is based on a levered beta of 1.006. Beta is a measure of a stock’s volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.
Next Steps:
Valuation is only one side of the coin in terms of building your investment thesis, and it is only one of many factors that you need to assess for a company. DCF models are not the beall and endall of investment valuation. Rather it should be seen as a guide to “what assumptions need to be true for this stock to be under/overvalued?” For example, changes in the company’s cost of equity or the risk free rate can significantly impact the valuation. Why is the intrinsic value higher than the current share price? For Mensch und Maschine Software, there are three important aspects you should assess:

Financial Health: Does MUM have a healthy balance sheet? Take a look at our free balance sheet analysis with six simple checks on key factors like leverage and risk.

Future Earnings: How does MUM’s growth rate compare to its peers and the wider market? Dig deeper into the analyst consensus number for the upcoming years by interacting with our free analyst growth expectation chart.

Other Solid Businesses: Low debt, high returns on equity and good past performance are fundamental to a strong business. Why not explore our interactive list of stocks with solid business fundamentals to see if there are other companies you may not have considered!
PS. The Simply Wall St app conducts a discounted cash flow valuation for every stock on the XTRA every day. If you want to find the calculation for other stocks, just search here.
Have feedback on this article? Concerned about the content? get in touch with us directly. Alternatively, email editorialteam (at) simplywallst.com.
This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. We provide commentary based on historical data and analyst forecasts only using an unbiased methodology and our articles are not intended to be financial advice. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives or your financial situation. We aim to bring you longterm focused analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest pricesensitive company announcements or qualitative material. Simply Wall St has no position in any stocks mentioned.
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